What should follow the exercise test?
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Every examined person should be informed by his physician about his movement abilities inevitable for the future life. The prescription of the exercise activity is based on the anamnesis, the clinical or laboratory findings and some functional values taken in position at rest. In many cases of inner diseases it is mainly based on the results of exercise test [1].

The prescription of exercise activity can be divided into two groups. The first group is patients. A physician explains them the importance and benefits of recommended activities (mainly rehabilitation and therapeutic), the risk of an unsuitable or forbidden activities, consecutiveness, adequacy and regularity of recommended activities. The second group is sportsmen. In this case the aim of examination is to predict physical fitness and performance, and to considerate the capability of concrete sport performance.

The influence of physical activity on an organism is shown up in the different system of an organism, in the different extent and depends on further factors such as age, sex, the intensity and kind of muscle activity including the continuance. The most significant areas of the influence of physical activity follow.

Organs of the locomotion (bones, gristles, ligament, muscles)

  • a change in the architectonic structure of bone tissue
  • storage on mineral salts in interstitial substance of bones
  • a reinforcement of ligament, an enhancement of pull robustness
  • intracellular changes in a muscle fibber; an enhancement of contractile albumenís content, an enhancement of K+ content, an enhancement of muscle enzyme globally and specifically according to the kind of repeated load
  • an improvement of muscle microcirculation conditions
  • an improvement of nervous muscle coordination, movement technique
  • an economizing of muscle activity, including a support of venous reversion
  • Transport system

  • an economizing of heart work; lower acceleration of heart rate during load, lower demands of heart for oxygen
  • an enhancement of myocardial contractility
  • an enhancement of cardiac output; only in case of young and intensive training
  • changes in blood distribution; muscles get along with smaller perfusion
  • an enhancement of circulating blood volume when haematocrit remains unchanged
  • an improvement of orthostatic tolerance
  • Metabolism

  • changes of blood lipids spectrum
  • a decreased secretion of insulin, an increased sensitiveness of periphery to insulin, an increased glucose tolerance
  • Body structure

  • body fat decrease and body lean mass increase
  • Mental area

  • a change of inhibition of stress factors
  • an increase of self-confidence
  • a form of self-realization
  • Reference:

    [1] Placheta, Z.: Exercise diagnostic and activity prescription in the internal medicine. MU Brno: Brno, 1992
     
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